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We tallied the number of publications that provided evidence for whether pumas were dominant or subordinate in interactions with each sympatric carnivore species, and awarded dominance to the species in the pairing with the most evidence (highest number of publications) supporting dominance.

Based upon our results determining which species were dominant over pumas and which were subordinate, we assessed coarse spatial patterns across the extant range of pumas. We acquired distribution maps for pumas and the species to which they were subordinate from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) ( Wildlife Conservation Society, 2008 ; Fast Delivery For Sale DESIGN Maxi Colour Block Track Dress Multi Asos Free Shipping Wholesale Price Outlet Store Locations Free Shipping Fashion Style Low Price Fee Shipping t6rkvF2
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; IUCN, 2016 ; IUCN SSC Bear Specialist Group, IUCN and IBA, 2017 ). IUCN range maps are polygons for Geographic Information Systems (GIS) that represent extant ranges where a species is likely to occur, based upon known occurrences of the species, habitat preferences and subsequent modeling, and other expert knowledge of the species and its range ( Free Shipping Pre Order Free Shipping ColourBlocked Bra Top XXL Sales Up to 50 Tommy Hilfiger Footaction Cheap Online Free Shipping Excellent CiTui
). We utilized the Union tool in ArcGIS 10.0 to create a single distribution for the dominant species, removing any redundancy where species overlapped. Then we used the Overlay tool to quantify in what proportion of a their range pumas are dominant versus subordinate to one or more competitors.

Our initial searches in Web of Science and Google Scholar yielded 72 potential papers that in turn yielded another 15 scientific accounts (e.g.,old graduate theses and state reports) for our review of competition between pumas and sympatric apex predators. In the end, we utilized a refined list of 64 distinct sources in our review; those that were discarded did not address competition between apex predators or were redundant publications of earlier findings. We found evidence that wolves dominated pumas in 78% ( n =18) of 23 sources, grizzly bears dominated pumas in 100% of 4 sources, black bears dominated pumas in 67% ( n =6) of 9 sources, jaguars dominated pumas in 60% ( n =15) of 25 sources, coyotes dominated pumas in 19% ( n =3) of 16 sources, and zero examples in which maned wolves dominated pumas ( Table 1 ; Fig. 1 ). In contrast, we found evidence that pumas dominated wolves in 22% ( n =5) of 23 sources, black bears in 44% ( n =4) of 9 sources, coyotes in 81% ( n =13) of 16 sources, and maned wolves in 67% ( n =2) of 3 sources ( Table 2 ; Stretchjersey Sports Bra Navy Tory Sport Discount Outlet Locations Free Shipping Top Quality Sale Excellent Discount Largest Supplier R6Uqa4U
). We also found 10 sources that did not detect dominance in either species where jaguars and pumas were sympatric ( Table 2 ).

Puma subordination.
DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4293/table-1

non-lethal competition

lethal competition


Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2011 6 :26


© Donadieu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.2011

Received: 29September2010

Accepted: 19May2011

Published: 19May2011


The term congenital neutropenia encompasses a family of neutropenic disorders, both permanent and intermittent, severe (<0.5 G/l) or mild (between 0.5-1.5 G/l), which may also affect other organ systems such as the pancreas, central nervous system, heart, muscle and skin. Neutropenia can lead to life-threatening pyogenic infections, acute gingivostomatitis and chronic parodontal disease, and each successive infection may leave permanent sequelae. The risk of infection is roughly inversely proportional to the circulating polymorphonuclear neutrophil count and is particularly high at counts below 0.2 G/l.

When neutropenia is detected, an attempt should be made to establish the etiology, distinguishing between acquired forms (the most frequent, including post viral neutropenia and auto immune neutropenia) and congenital forms that may either be isolated or part of a complex genetic disease.

Except for ethnic neutropenia, which is a frequent but mild congenital form, probably with polygenic inheritance, all other forms of congenital neutropenia are extremely rare and have monogenic inheritance, which may be X-linked or autosomal, recessive or dominant.

About half the forms of congenital neutropenia with no extra-hematopoetic manifestations and normal adaptive immunity are due to neutrophil elastase () mutations. Some patients have severe permanent neutropenia and frequent infections early in life, while others have mild intermittent neutropenia.

Congenital neutropenia may also be associated with a wide range of organ dysfunctions, as for example in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (associated with pancreatic insufficiency) and glycogen storage disease type Ib (associated with a glycogen storage syndrome). So far, the molecular bases of 12 neutropenic disorders have been identified.

Treatment of severe chronic neutropenia should focus on prevention of infections. It includes antimicrobial prophylaxis, generally with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and also granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). G-CSF has considerably improved these patients' outlook. It is usually well tolerated, but potential adverse effects include thrombocytopenia, glomerulonephritis, vasculitis and osteoporosis. Long-term treatment with G-CSF, especially at high doses, augments the spontaneous risk of leukemia in patients with congenital neutropenia.

Neutropenia Childhood G-CSF Severe congenital neutropenia Adverse effects Shwachman Diamond Syndrome Review

Congenital neutropenia is characterized by chronic neutropenia due to a constitutional genetic defect. Since the early 1990s, and particularly during the last decade, the molecular bases of several entities have been discovered, leading to changes in the disease classification. Kostmann's syndrome is often considered as the paradigm of congenital neutropenia. This disorder, first described in a Swedish publication in 1950 [ Brand New Unisex Cheap Price Womens Cross Hatch Batwing TShirt New Look 2018 Newest 9nKoKno7A
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], has three main characteristics: profound neutropenia (<0.2 G/l) occurring during the first weeks of life, maturation arrest of granulopoiesis at the promyelocyte stage, and death due to bacterial infections (11 of the 14 initially reported patients died in their first year of life from bacterial infections). Nearly 50 years later, these patients' life expectancy routinely exceeds 20 years and the molecular basis of this entity has been identified [ DENIM Denim skirts Fixdesign Genuine Cheap Online Discount Shop For pt8IC4DIW
]. It is now agreed that Kostmann's syndrome is accompanied, at least in forms due to mutations of one the two isoforms of protein, those observed in the 'kostmann's pedigree', by neurological involvement (mental retardation and epilepsy) [ 4 ]. Thus, the "paradigm" of congenital neutropenia is a condition with early hematologic expression and later neurological involvement.

Knowledge of the molecular bases of other forms of congenital neutropenia has also modified the disease classification. Until the late 1990s, the literature distinguished cyclic neutropenia, associated with a regular pattern of change in the neutrophil count, typically every 21 days and showing autosomal dominant transmission [ Get Authentic Sale Online Discount Wholesale Price Summer Samba Slimfit Shortlength Printed Swim Shorts Frescobol Carioca AoRtbr3Cf9
], from permanent neutropenia (severe congenital neutropenia or Kostmann's syndrome). This distinction was made in publications based on the international registry of chronic neutropenia in the late 1990s [ 6 , 7 ], in which cyclic neutropenia was not included among the congenital neutropenias. In 1999, M. Horwitz, analyzing 13 pedigrees of patients with cyclic neutropenia, identified mutations in the neutrophil elastase () gene [ 8 ]. Shortly afterwards the same team found that many patients with severe congenital neutropenia also had mutations of the gene [ 9 ] This pointed to a continuum between severe congenital neutropenia and cyclic neutropenia, and showed that both could be considered "congenital".

Another example of nosologic reclassification concerns the gluco-6-phosphatase molecular complex, which is defective in glycogen storage disease Ib and also in an entity associated with cutaneous involvement, cardiac arrhythmias and malformative uropathy but not with metabolic disorders [ 10 ]

Neutropenia is defined as a reduction in the absolute number of neutrophils in the blood circulation. The standard hematologic examination is microscopic cell counting, which is necessary to confirm disorders identified by automated cell counters and especially to examine the cell morphology. Neutropenia is defined by a neutrophil count below 1.5 G/l in children over 1 year, and below 2 G/l in children aged between 2 and 12 months [ 11 , Cheap Eastbay Longline TShirt With Splatter Tour Logo Print Black Asos Factory Sale Buy Cheap For Nice Huge Surprise SM03jJSdG
13 ].

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12 May, 2017, 4:49 am

i add https version of my site in web master but it not verify that i tried alot both meta tag codes are same for http and https but http version is verified bit now htpps in not verifying error The connection to your server timed out. what to do now

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12 May, 2017, 9:36 am

Yes, you should be able to add them again.

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15 May, 2017, 1:09 pm

The contact form on this site isn’t working and this page is linked by the notification so I’ll post here. Since the last update your plugin’s notification in the admin area won’t go away that says, “SSL activated! Don’t forget to change your settings in Google Analytics en Webmaster tools. More info.”

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15 May, 2017, 1:54 pm

Hi Ali, possibly your problem on the contact page is caused by Google Recaptcha, but the support form should always work. I don’t see this behaviour you describe on the sites I manage. Sometimes the dismissal does not work when another plugin causes a javascript error. If you check the developer console in your browser, do you see any errors?

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17 May, 2017, 1:32 pm

Few things; It’s a multisite so that fix isn’t very efficient. Yours is one of two plugins out of several that have this problem. The other is wp-spamshield but several other plugins, I can click and it goes away for good so there’s something there. Lastly, it’s a bit of an unnecessary, proactive message. While I appreciate the effort, and I don’t mean to sounds rude, but what business is it of yours whether I keep google up to date? Especially since your plugin isn’t an seo plugin. WP-spamshield, same thing. Warning about a bug in the wp core. Nothing to do with spam. One good thing about plugins like yours and Scott’s is that they stayed out of the way and did their jobs. We like that. No longer the case maybe? Having messages the pop up that keep popping up after dismissal for admins is not the best thing on a multisite.

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